- Pressure Filling Technique
Insert a needle until it wedges.

Force the cement from that point to the apex(hopefully)

- The PCA Concept
Insert the needle to as close to the bottom of the canal as possible.

Withdraw the syringe as cement fills the canal.

- The Milton Concept
- The Origins
Milton comes not from the poet but from the city in Wisconsin where the concept for the Milton Syringe came to me as a direct result of questions from the attendees as the course that day.

- Frustrum and Truncated Cone
If a needle wedges in a canal and...

the apical size is known and...

the diameter of the needle is know and

the distance to the apex is known...

this defines a frustrum or a truncated cone for which a volume can be calculated

Then if the inner diameter of a syringe is known and thus the cross sectional area...

by dividing the volume of the canal by the area of the inside of the syringe...

you can calculate how far the plunger must be pushed to deliver the exact quantity of cement needed to pressure fill the canal from the tip of the needle to the apex.

and if the diameter of the needle is fixed a Computer Generated Table could be calculated and printed making calculations unnecessary.

It is vital that the syringe be as small as possible to make this possible.

The Milton Syringe was developed using 25 gauge tubing as the syringe barrel and a piece of 30 gauge wire as the plunger, creating a miniature syringe.

Unfortunately the entire concept was greeted by a giant yawn by the profession and the project was shelved.

- The Origins
- Bottom Up Filling Technique

- The Theory

- What Happens in Practice

- The Theory